New Kadampa Tradition (NKT)
Kadampa Buddhism -
International Kadampa Buddhist Union (IKBU)
The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) is a global Buddhist organization and registered charitable company founded by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso 1991 in England. In 2003, the words “International Kadampa Buddhist Union” (IKBU) were added to the name, making its official full name the New Kadampa Tradition - International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT-IKBU).
While the NKT-IKBU describes itself as Kadampa Buddhism and as a ‘time-honored’ tradition, stating that “Kadampa Buddhism is a Mahayana Buddhist school founded by the great Indian Buddhist Master Atisha (AD 982-1054),” Peter Bernard Clarke, a theology professor at Oxford, has characterised the NKT as a “controversial Tibetan Buddhist NRM (New Religious Movement)”.
In 1976 the students of Lama Thubten Yeshe founded the Manjushri Institute, a registered charitable company with Lama Yeshe as the Spiritual Director and purchased the assets of Conishead Priory, a sadly neglected Victorian mansion in Ulverston (Cumbria), England for the price of £70,000. In the same year Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche visited Geshe Kelsang in India and invited him over to teach at the Manjushri Institute, which was a part of their FPMT network.
According to researcher David N. Kay, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso was invited in 1976 by Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche, who sought the advice of HH the 14th Dalai Lama when choosing Geshe Kelsang. Whereas according to a NKT brochure, “Lama Yeshe requested Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche to ask Geshe Kelsang to become Resident Teacher of Manjushri Institute. Geshe Kelsang later recounted that Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche asked him to go to England, teach Shantideva’s Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Chandrakirti’s Guide to the Middle Way and Lamrim, and then check whether there was any meaning in his continuing to stay.”
Geshe Kelsang was requested by Lama Yeshe to lead the “General Program” of Buddhist study. In 1979 Lama Yeshe installed another Geshe at Manjushri Institute, Geshe Jampa Tekchok, to teach a parallel twelve-year Geshe Studies Programme, which was recognized and validated by the Dalai Lama and which was modeled on the traditional Geshe degree. From 1982 to 1990 this program was led by Geshe Konchog Tsewang. According to a disciple of Lama Yeshe from this time, Lama Yeshe intended the institute “to become the central monastery of the FPMT … one of the early jewels of the FPMT crown” and “the pioneer among the western centers”.
In the late 1970s, Geshe Kelsang, without consulting Lama Yeshe, opened up a Buddhist Centre in York under his own spiritual direction. Kay sees this as the beginning of a conflict between Geshe Kelsang and Lama Yeshe. However, according to Geshe Kelsang, “the opening of the Centre in York caused not one moment of confusion or disharmony”. Geshe Kelsang was asked to resign so that another Geshe, described by Kay as “more devoted to FPMT objectives”, could take over as a resident teacher of Manjushri Institute. Many students of Geshe Kelsang petitioned him to stay and teach them, and on this basis he decided to remain. In the following years prior 1990 Geshe Kelsang established 15 centers under his own direction in Great Britain and Spain.
Both David Kay and Daniel Cozort describe the management committee of Manjushri Institute from 1981 onwards as made up principally of Geshe Kelsang’s closest students, also known as “the Priory Group”. According to Kay, “The Priory Group became dissatisfied with the FPMT’s increasingly centralized organisation.” Cozort states that different disagreements “led to a rift between Lama Yeshe and his students and Geshe Kelsang Gyatso and his, and eventually the Manjushri Board of directors (comprised of Geshe Gyatso’s students) severed the connection of the between institute and FPMT.” According to Kay, Lama Yeshe tried at different times to reassert his authority over the Institute, but his attempts were unsuccessful. Kay goes on to describe an open conflict of authority which developed between the Priory Group and the FPMT administration in 1983. In February 1984 the conflict was mediated by the Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in London. Kay states that after the death of Lama Yeshe in March 1984, the FPMT lost interest because they saw it as a fruitless case. Since that time, Kay states, the Manjushri Institute has developed mainly under the guidance of Geshe Kelsang without further reference to the FPMT, but legally remained part of the FPMT until late 1990.
According to Kay, of the two Geshes at Manjushri Institute, it was Geshe Kelsang who had always taken the greater interest in the running and direction of the Institute, and most of the students there were closer to him. The courses offered by both Geshes complemented each other, but as Kay remarked, they “differed in one important respect: only Geshe Kelsang’s General Programme included courses on Tantric Buddhism, and attendance upon these required the reception of a Tantric empowerment.” Further, Kay argues that “Lama Yeshe’s and Geshe Kelsang’s different ideological perspectives provided the conditions for the organisational dispute between the Institute and the FPMT to escalate. Geshe Kelsang was already predisposed to support his students in their struggle with the FPMT administration because the organisation was inspired by a vision that he did not totally agree with.”
Kay writes that, “the determination of Geshe Kelsang and the Priory Group to separate from the parent organisation was uncompromising, and this was a position that only hardened during the following years.” He goes on to describe the split from the Gelug school and FPMT as follows:
Geshe Kelsang made a 3-year retreat from 1987-1990 in Dumfries, Scotland and asked Geshe Losang Pende from Ganden Shartse monastery to lead the General Program in his absence, whilst Geshe Konchog Tsewang continued to teach the Geshe Studies Programme at Conishead Priory (Manjushri Institute). Different Lamas, including Lama Zopa Rinpoche, were still invited. Especially the visit of Lama Zopa Rinpoche in 1988 “is significant, indicating the ongoing devotion of the students to this lama and their desire to leave the negativity of the schism with the FPMT in the past.” In 1988 and 1990 the uncle of Geshe Kelsang, Ven. Choyang Duldzin Kuten Lama - the oracle of Dorje Shugden - also visited Manjushri Institute. Before that time Song Rinpoche, Geshe Lhundup Sopa, Geshe Rabten, as well as other lamas such as Ajahn Sumedho and Thich Nhat Hanh have taught at Manjushri Institute.
During Geshe Kelsang’s period of retreat he wrote some of his books and worked out the foundations of the NKT. Kay states: “The first major development that took place during Geshe Kelsang’s retreat was the introduction of the ‘Teacher Training Programme’ (TTP) at the Manjushri Institute.” Kay comments the developments at that time: “By giving his study programmes a textual basis, Geshe Kelsang not only provided accessible materials to enhance the focus and commitment of his students, but also laid down structures through which spiritual authority could later be concentrated exclusively on him.”
According to Kay,
At this stage in the development of Geshe Kelsang’s network, students were not required to rely on him exclusively … His perspective had yet to harden further, and the decisive shift appears to have taken place shortly after he came out of retreat in 1990 when he began to introduce new and radically exclusive policies within his centres. He had come to believe by this time that he had a central role to play in the preservation of Tsongkhapa’s tradition in the modern age. The substance of the various reforms he implemented, therefore, was that the student within his centres were now to rely exclusively upon him for their spiritual inspiration and welfare.
According to Kay, Geshe Kelsang was gravely concerned that the purity of Tsongkhapa’s tradition was being undermined by the lingering inclusivism of his Western students, something he had been outspoken for some years, “but he now acted more forcefully in his opposition to it by discouraging his students both from receiving guidance from teachers of other traditions and from reading their books.” Kay states that another result of these “radically exclusive policies” was that after the foundation of NKT the Manjushri Institute Library, with over 3000 books, was removed. Kay goes on to state that, “this began with non-Gelug books being removed, but as Geshe Kelsang’s vision crystallised, even books by Gelug teachers became unacceptable to him and the library disappeared altogether. He thus became convinced that the Tibetan Gelug tradition as a whole no longer embodied Tsongkhapa’s pure teachings and that he and his disciples must therefore separate from it. From this point onwards, Tibetan Gelug lamas would no longer be invited to teach within his network. This perceived degeneration extended to include its highest-level lamas, and so even veneration for the Dalai Lama was now actively discouraged.” The pictures of the Dalai Lama were removed from the gompas and shrines of Geshe Kelsang’s centres. In 1990 Geshe Kelsang became also outspoken against the Geshe Studies Programme, and “made the pursuit of his new programmes compulsory.” According to Kay “As it was no longer possible for students to follow the programmes of both Geshes, the basis of Geshe Konchog’s teaching programme at the Institute was undermined, and in 1991 he retired to Gyuto Monastery in Assam, India.”
According to David Kay, “in 1991, through the successful exploitation of a legal loophole, the assets of Manjushri Institute finally fell under the sole control of the Priory Group” (the close disciples of Geshe Kelsang). In the Spring of that same year, Geshe Kelsang announced the creation of the ‘New Kadampa Tradition’, an event which was celebrated in the NKT-Magazine Full Moon as “a wonderful development in the history of the Buddhadharma.” In 1992, the Manjushri Institute developed a new constitution, which constituted the formal foundation of the NKT. The Manjushri Institute was renamed the Manjushri Mahayana Buddhist Center, and later the Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Center. Since then, it has remained Geshe Kelsang’s home and the NKT’s flagship center.
With the foundation of the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, he established a new and independent religious movement aiming to “principally follow the teachings and example of Je Tsongkhapa”. This also gave a new identity to his followers. The many NKT centres which were built up rapidly by his followers could gather under the common auspices of the NKT and their spiritual guide, distinguishing and disassociating themselves from other Tibetan Buddhist traditions, especially the Gelug school from which Geshe Kelsang Gyatso originated. Kay argued that with these changes, Geshe Gyatso provided a basis for the NKT to become a Western tradition whose “spiritual authority could later be concentrated exclusively on him.” Cozort describes this as unusual in the Tibetan tradition. The NKT described themselves as being “an entirely independent Buddhist tradition with no political affiliations … that is appropriate to the needs and conditions of the modern world”. David N. Kay comments:
In defining the movement in this way, the organisation is not simply maintaining that it represents Buddhism adapted for westerners; it is also striving to underline its separation from the Tibetan Gelug sect and emphasise the point that the West - via the NKT - is now the guardian and custodian of the pure tradition of Tsongkhapa in the modern world. From an NKT viewpoint, Geshe Kelsang has played a unique role in the transmission of Tsongkhapa’s pure teachings, and the organisation and study structures he has created in the West are now believed to protect and preserve a tradition that is all but lost in its indigenous Eastern context.
The separation from the Gelug school and Tibetan Buddhism has been reaffirmed in 2010 by Steve Cowing, NKT-IKBU secretary, who advised and requested in a letter to all NKT-IKBU centres “that NKT Centres, teachers, managers and residents do not get involved with the activities of any Tibetan Buddhist groups, teachers or their students.” The reasons Cowing gave are “because of the potential for great spiritual confusion both now and in the future” and “to help NKT practitioners to avoid mixing spiritual traditions, while of course maintaining respect for other traditions. It will also avoid being drawn into the many difficult political problems associated with Tibetan Buddhism, caused by mixing Dharma and politics.”[*5]
“Multiple ‘histories’ exist on an individual and public group level both inside and outside the movement. As the pre-history of the group is rooted in conflict and schism the social organisation of memory and forgetfulness especially the group’s leadership is particularly striking. Accounts of current and former members either reinforce or contradict and compete with each other. They diverge widely over points of historical detail and often interpret the same events and processes in very different ways, reflecting a wide range of personal experience, depth of involvement, bias, opinion and loyalty. At the level of public discourse, the history and identity of the NKT has also, during the course of its development, undergone considerable realignment. Of course, such revision and reconfiguration of the past is commonplace within religious movements that are more concerned with issues of identity and ideology than with notions of historical veracity.”
In the beginning the NKT tried to clarify they are “pure Gelugpas”:
In 1998 Geshe Kelsang stated in an interview:
We are pure Gelugpas. The name Gelugpa doesn’t matter, but we believe we are following the pure tradition of Je Tsongkhapa. We are studying and practicing Lama Tsongkhapa’s teachings and taking as our example what the ancient Kadampa lamas and geshes did. All the books that I have written are commentaries on Lama Tsongkhapa’s teachings. We try our best to follow the example of the ancient Kadampa Tradition and use the name Kadampa to remind people to practice purely.
Later NKT tried to clarify what distinguish them from the Gelugpas:
According to an NKT brochure, written by James Belither while secretary of the NKT:
Geshe Kelsang first introduced the title ‘New Kadampa Tradition’ to give the centres under his spiritual direction a distinct identity within the wider Buddhist world. Although the Gelugpas were sometimes referred to as new Kadampas, the name New Kadampa Tradition had never been used previously in a formal sense. Nevertheless, by using this title Geshe Kelsang is making it clear that practitioners of this tradition are principally following the teachings and example of Je Tsongkhapa. The word ‘New’ is used not to imply that it is newly created, but is a fresh presentation of Buddhadharma in a form and manner that is appropriate to the needs and conditions of the modern world. Furthermore, by using the title ‘Kadampa’, Geshe Kelsang encourages his disciples to follow the perfect example of simplicity and purity of practice shown by the Kadampa Geshes.
Nowadays the New Kadampa Tradition describe Geshe Kelsang Gyatso’s presentation of Buddhism to the West as Kadampa Buddhism with the following statement:
“Kadampa Buddhism is a time-honored tradition that for centuries has made Buddha’s teachings and meditation practices available to people throughout the world.”
“It is an association of Buddhist Centers and practitioners that derive their inspiration and guidance from the example of the ancient Kadampa Buddhist Masters and their teachings as presented by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) is an international non-profit organization registered in England as a charitable company …, and was founded by Geshe Kelsang to provide a vehicle for promoting Kadampa Buddhism throughout the world.”
Moreover, the NKT present themselves as being the continuation of the old Kadampa tradition by naming their school Kadampa Buddhism and equating Kadampa Buddhism with the historical Kadampa School of Atisha:
Kadampa Buddhism is a Mahayana Buddhist school founded by the great Indian Buddhist Master Atisha (AD 982-1054) … The great Kadampa Teachers are famous not only for being great scholars but also for being spiritual practitioners of immense purity and sincerity. The lineage of these teachings, both their oral transmission and blessings, was then passed from Teacher to disciple, spreading throughout much of Asia, and now to many countries throughout the Western world … Kadampa Buddhism was first introduced into the West in 1977 by the renowned Buddhist Master, Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Since that time, he has worked tirelessly to spread Kadampa Buddhism throughout the world by giving extensive teachings, writing many profound texts on Kadampa Buddhism, and founding the New Kadampa Tradition - International Kadampa Buddhist Union.
The NKT claim further that “Kadampa Buddhism was first introduced into the West in 1977 by the renowned Buddhist Master, Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso.”
Consequently followers of the NKT refer to themselves as Kadampa Buddhists, the Temples of the New Kadampa Tradition are referred to as Kadampa Buddhist Temples, and NKT teachers are named Kadampa Teachers. Additionally, the Dharma centers of the New Kadampa Tradition are called Kadampa Buddhist Centers and the hotels Hotel Kadampas. The official NKT website claims that “Through the actions of Geshe Kelsang Kadampa Buddhism has now become a truly global religion.”
James Belither, the former secretary of the NKT, described the NKT as “a Mahayana Buddhist tradition with historical connections with Tibet”, rather than a Tibetan tradition, and explained that Geshe Kelsang wishes his followers always “to present Dharma in a way appropriate to their own culture and society without the need to adopt Tibetan culture and customs”.
In 2009 the NKT adjusted their self-portrayal: “It is an international association of study and meditation centers that follow the pure tradition of Mahayana Buddhism derived from the Buddhist meditators and scholars Atisha and Je Tsongkhapa and introduced into the West by the Buddhist Teacher Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso.”[*1]
During a marketing campaign in 2011 the New Kadampa Tradition started to promote themselves under the label of “Modern Buddhism”, stating that NKT offer a “special presentation of modern Buddhism taught by Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso”. The campaign involved the aquisition of domains that start with "www.meditatein…” [London, Copenhagen, etc.]. Some of NKT’s websites refer to their teachers as “Teachers of Modern Kadampa Buddhism” or just “Modern Teachers”. In August 2012 the first “International Kadampa Primary School” opened in Derbyshire (UK).
Kay states that the NKT’s leadership tried to eradicate unwelcome memories of discontinuity, conflict and schism by promoting a simplified, continuous and sanitized group history. The literature produced by NKT concentrates mainly on the organisation’s post-1991 development, keeping discussion of its early history brief and in line with the current identity, whilst making no reference at all to the FPMT. Kay observed that “Current disciples of Geshe Kelsang whose association with him is relatively recent also tend to place the NKT’s emergence within a narrative of continuity that bypasses its actual historical development. These disciples, who usually have little or no awareness of the early history of the organisation, assume that since Geshe Kelsang is an ‘enlightened being’, the creation of the NKT had always been his intention. They tend to explain the years preceding 1991 as a period in which he carefully and deliberately planned, prepared and laid the foundations for the later organisation. This approach to the NKT’s historical development reflects the dominant narrative that has been publicly promoted by the leadership of the organisation. The ‘official’ version of the NKT’s history has been reluctant to admit that Geshe Kelsang’s thought has undergone considerable development and change during his time in the West.”
Whereas the NKT celebrate Geshe Kelsang as the one who “is primarily responsible for the worldwide revival of Kadampa Buddhism in our time”, “critics have described The New Kadampa Tradition as a breakaway sect or cult and argue it is not part of the ancient Kadampa Tradition but a split from the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.”[*2] (for more see Controversies)
Bluck remarked that there remains an apparent contradiction between claiming a pure Tibetan lineage and separating completely from contemporary Tibetan tradition. While the NKT strongly emphasizes its unbroken ‘lineage’, it has no Tibetan followers and claims to stand outside current Tibetan Buddhism.
The New Kadampa Tradition traces its spiritual lineage through these main figures:
- Buddha Shakyamuni
- Je Tsongkhapa
- Pabongka Rinpoche
- Kyabje Trijang Dorjechang
- Geshe Kelsang Gyatso
From 1991 to 1995 Gelong Thubten Gyatso (a.k.a. Gen Thubten or Neil Elliot) was appointed as a ‘Gen-la’ and Resident Teacher of Madhyamaka Centre (Pocklington, York) and as Geshe Kelsang’s future successor. He was described by NKT as “the first qualified English Tantric meditation master in Britain”. He was known as the ‘heart-disciple’ of Geshe Kelsang and Geshe Kelsang himself wrote a prayer for his long life which was recited regularly at NKT centres. According to Madeleine Bunting “Gen Thubten […] is described by former members as having been the ‘power behind the throne’.” Bunting states further that “Former members understand that Gen Thubten was disrobed because of a breach of his monastic vows. He was deeply revered by the 3,000 NKT members for his knowledge of Buddhism and his charismatic teaching.”
In 1995 Geshe Kelsang provisionally appointed 4 ‘Gen-las’, i.e. Losang Kelsang, Kelsang Jangsem, Kelsang Dekyong and Samden Gyatso. After about a year, the former two resigned as Gen-las and were re-appointed as Resident Teachers. Samden Gyatso became the Deputy Spiritual Director and successor to Geshe Kelsang while Kelsang Dekyong was appointed as the US National Spiritual Director. From this time onwards, the Deputy Spiritual Director also holds the appointment of Resident Teacher at Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Centre.
In December 2006 Samden Gyatso (a.k.a. Steve Wass) disrobed and left the NKT under unexplained circumstances.[*6] By February 2007, Kelsang Khyenrab was appointed as his replacement. Khyenrab retired as the General Spiritual Director due to ill health in April 2010 and Kelsang Dekyong was appointed as the new General Spiritual Director. Her position as Deputy Spiritual Director was taken by Kelsang Kunsang.
The New Kadampa Tradition has been developed exclusively on the basis of Geshe Kelsang’s teachings and published books, which follow a selection of Gelug Teachings of different Buddhist Mahayana and Vajrayana texts. The main practice in the NKT is Lamrim (Stages of the Path to Enlightenment), Lojong (Training the Mind), and Vajrayana Mahamudra (The practices of Highest Yoga Tantra), with a strong emphasis on Guru devotion and the tantric Guru-Yoga.
Geshe Kelsang regards all his books as “coming from Je Tsongkhapa, with himself as being like a cassette recorder into which the Wisdom Buddha, the Dharma Protector Dorje Shugden, has placed the cassette of Je Tsongkhapa’s teachings”.
Cozort confirms the NKT view that the textbooks of Geshe Kelsang “are commentaries on Gelug works, especially those of its founder Tsongkhapa.”
About the textbooks of Geshe Kelsang, the NKT says: “This remarkable series of authoritative books represents the most complete and integrated presentation of the Buddhist path to enlightenment available in any western language. Originally written in English they are currently being translated into many of the world’s major languages.”
Regarding Guru devotion, Kay has observed that:
“Teachings on guru devotion and guru-yoga naturally form an important part of the texts composed by Geshe Kelsang, and his general presentation of this concept is rooted firmly within traditional Tibetan outlines of the guru-disciple relationship. His teachings on this subject have, nevertheless, changed and developed during his time in the West and they now incorporate a number of unusual features. The main shift in his thought occurred with the creation of the NKT. Discussions of the guru-disciple relationship appearing in his publications from this time reflect an exclusivism that did not characterise his earlier presentation and which is uncommon within traditional Tibetan contexts.”
At the heart of the NKT are its three study programs. Giving an overview of the purpose of the programs, the NKT says: “Geshe Kelsang Gyatso has designed three special spiritual programs for the systematic study and practice of Kadampa Buddhism that are especially suited to the modern world.” It is believed by NKT followers that they embody the “pure lineage” in its entirety.
Describing the introduction of these programs in 1990, Geshe Kelsang said:
“At present in our Centers we have a Foundation Program and a Teacher Training Program. This is not a new tradition. In the past there have been other programs specially designed for Dharma students according to their particular circumstances. All of these programs involved studying a certain number of texts, memorizing material, passing examinations, and being awarded a degree or certificate. For example, the ancient Kadampa Geshes had a program in which they studied six texts. Later Je Tsongkhapa introduced a program based on ten texts, and later still Tibetan Monasteries such as Ganden, Sera, and Drepung introduced a program based on five texts. I studied this program at Sera Monastery.”
The three spiritual programs are:
- The General Program, which provides an introduction to basic Buddhist ideas and meditation.
- The Foundation Program, which includes the study of six commentaries written by Geshe Kelsang on the following classical texts:
- Joyful Path of Good Fortune - based on Pabongka Rinpoche’s teachings on Lamrim or The Stages of the Path to Enlightenment
- Universal Compassion - a commentary on Bodhisattva Chekhawa’s Training the Mind in Seven Points
- Eight Steps to Happiness - a commentary on Bodhisattva Langri Tangpa’s Eight Verses of Training the Mind
- Heart of Wisdom - a commentary on the Heart Sutra
- Meaningful to Behold - a commentary on Shantideva’s Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life
- Understanding the Mind - a commentary and detailed explanation of the mind based on the works of the Buddhist scholars Dharmakirti and Dignaga.
- The Teacher Training Program is intended for people who wish to train as NKT Dharma Teachers. All
Resident Teachers of NKT Centers follow this program of study and
practice. The program involves the study of 14 texts of Geshe Kelsang,
including all of those in the Foundation Program, and the additional 8
listed below. This program also includes commitments concerning one’s
lifestyle, based on the 5 lay vows of the Pratimoksha, and the
completion of specific meditation retreats.
- The Bodhisattva Vow - A commentary on Mahayana moral discipline and the practice of the six perfections.
- Ocean of Nectar - A commentary on Chandrakirti’s Guide to the Middle Way
- Clear Light of Bliss - A commentary on meditations of Highest Yoga Tantra.
- Great Treasury of Merit - A commentary on the Puja Offering to the Spiritual Guides of Basi Chökyi Gyaltsen (1st Panchen Lama)
- Mahamudra Tantra - Meditation on the nature of mind according to Tantra
- Guide to Dakini Land - A commentary on the Highest Yoga Tantra practice of Vajrayogini
- Tantric Grounds and Paths - An explanation of the practice of the lower and upper classes of Tantra
- Essence of Vajrayana - A commentary on the Highest Yoga Tantra practice of Heruka
In 1990 Geshe Kelsang said:
“These programs … are real wishfulfilling jewels for Dharma practitioners. By participating in them we can improve our wisdom and Dharma experience and use Dharma to solve our daily problems. We can become our own protector by protecting ourselves from danger and suffering, and our own doctor by curing our mental pain with Dharma medicine. We shall be able to set a good example for others to follow and help others by giving teachings and advice. Eventually we will be able to give extensive teachings and benefit others in many ways by organizing special programs and so forth. In this way we will make both our own and others’ human lives extremely meaningful.”
Waterhouse has observed that a fundamental element is “the notion of the purity of Geshe Kelsang’s lineage and the importance of maintaining that purity in practice”. In his book Understanding the mind, Geshe Kelsang states that “it is mixing different religious traditions that causes sectarianism”, and he discourages the reader of doing so, claiming that “studying non-religious subjects is less of an obstacle to our spiritual progress than studying religions of different traditions.” He argues further that “the practices taught by one teacher will differ from those taught by another, and if we try to combine them we will become confused, develop doubts, and lose direction.” Regarding this view, Kay states that “in order to obtain spiritual realisations and to ensure that the pure tradition of Tsongkhapa remains in the world, NKT students are encouraged to ‘practise purely’. This means that they must not mix their spiritual practice — their study, meditation, or sadhana recitation and visualisation exercises — with worldly or political activities or with other, non-NKT spiritual teachings. The books and sadhanas prepared by Geshe Kelsang upon which all NKT practice is based, and the infrastructure of the NKT organisation itself, are considered to have placed a boundary around Tsongkhapas’s pure tradition, the survival of which depends entirely upon a widespread diligence in boundary maintenance. As part of the emphasis on pure practice, students within the NKT are discouraged from attending teachings or reading books by other Buddhist teachers and authors”. According to Geshe Kelsang, “If we follow these spiritual programmes we will steadily progress towards enlightenment, but if we try to do everything ourselves and read many different books from many different traditions we will just get confused.”
According to Bluck, these study programmes have been widely criticised as rote learning.
In a 1998 manual for the NKT Teacher-Training Programme, the students were encouraged to: “internalise Geshe-la’s books so that we can quote liberally from them, word for word.” Students were advised that “if it is found in the works of Geshe Kelsang it is completely reliable”, and further that “the more devotion we have to our Guru the more qualified we are as a Teacher. Every NKT Teacher must give exactly the same explanation, otherwise the NKT will disintegrate … Therefore this generation of Teachers must try very hard to come to complete consensus as to what is the correct interpretation of every single section of every one of Geshe-la’s books.”
According to Bluck, interviewees described a very different picture, claiming that the manual was written without Geshe Kelsang’s approval and was seldom used, being “unknown to most NKT students and teachers”. Study programmes were said to adopt a critical approach, with students encouraged to ask questions and explore difficulties. In 2004 James Belither explained that although only Geshe Kelsang’s books are studied at centres, there is “no rule against NKT students reading books from other traditions”, as this is a matter of personal choice.
Examining the criticism that NKT training is too one-sided, Cozort says: “NKT students rely entirely upon the published works of Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Kelsang Gyatso is a highly trained Geshe, and his teaching through these books is very much in the mainstream of his tradition, but it is still only one voice and one point of view. This is unusual in the Tibetan tradition. Although it is true enough that for Gelugpas, Tsongkhapa is considered virtually infallible, in general no source is considered immune from criticism.”
Geshe Kelsang expounded on the qualifications of NKT teachers in 1990:
“Buddhadharma is beneficial to others only if there are qualified Teachers. Without Teachers, Dharma texts alone are of little benefit. To become a qualified Dharma Teacher requires special preparation and training. It is not easy to become a Dharma Teacher because special qualities are needed: wisdom, correct view, faith, conviction, and pure conduct as an example to others. Also a Teacher needs an inexhaustible reservoir of Dharma knowledge and experience to teach from, otherwise he or she will dry up after one or two years. If a Teacher lacks qualities such as wisdom, experience, faith, and pure motivation, it will be difficult for others to develop faith in them or their teachings, and there will be little benefit. Also, without proper training and preparation there is a danger of Teachers mixing worldly, samsaric activities with their teaching activities. Therefore we definitely need to train well if we wish to be a genuine benefit to others.”
Regarding the qualifications of NKT teachers, Kay observed that “Whilst personal experience of the teachings is considered important, the dominant view within the NKT is that the main qualification of a teacher is their purity of faith and discipleship.” There has been some discussion about the qualification of NKT teachers. Waterhouse found that disciples in Bath were expected to memorize texts in full and were invited to teach through their “ability to function as a channel” for Geshe Kelsang, rather than by the extent of their own knowledge. Kay found the role of the NKT teacher described as a ‘channel’ for transmitting Geshe Kelsang’s teachings “without colouring them with their own personal ideas”, one saw himself as “a talking book” where “Geshe Kelsang’s teaching come through your mouth”, and another NKT teacher explained that an individual’s lack of experience or ‘realisations’ is not an obstacle because “all you need to become a teacher is to have faith in Geshe Kelsang and know your Dharma a little bit”. Doubts by NKT teachers about their qualification were admitted and addressed by Geshe Kelsang in an ordination talk during the Spring Festival in 2000: “Some of you come to me and say, ‘Geshe-la, I am not being honest with my students, I have so many problems, delusions of anger, attachment, jealousy, many negative thoughts. I am just pretending to be a qualified Teacher, I am not being honest.’ Sometimes you might think like this because you are an educated westerner. You should never allow your delusions to make you discouraged, this is ridiculous! I do appreciate that when some teachers get discouraged, that in reality they are being honest, but that is foolish. If you allow your students to see you unhappy they will lose faith, trust and confidence in you.”
According to Bluck’s research:
“Most teachers are appointed to centres by Geshe Kelsang before they have completed the Teaching Training Programme and continue studying by correspondence, with an intensive study programme at Manjushri each summer. After 4 years as a resident teacher, monastics take the title ‘Gen’ and lay teachers become ‘Kadam’ (Namgyal, 2004). Most resident teachers are ordained, with only a few centres having a lay teacher, though local branch classes are often taught by lay students. Kay found that lay people were almost as likely as monastics to be given teaching and leadership roles; and he sees this as an important Western adaptation of Gelug Buddhism, again because this includes tantric practices which Tsongkhapa restricted to those with ‘a solid grounding of academic study and celibate monastic discipline’.”
The “Internal Rules” of NKT explain the consequences if any present or former NKT-IKBU Dharma Teacher separates from the NKT-IKBU “and establishes a spiritually independent organisation, or follows another spiritual tradition”. The Internal Rule 10§1 “Withdrawal of authorisations” says that such a person “can no longer hold the lineage and spiritual tradition of the New Kadampa Tradition.” and
»In particular he or she cannot:
- teach any of the three Study Programmes: General Programme, Foundation Programme, or Teacher Training Programme, that are related to the NKT tradition;
- grant the empowerments of Lower or Highest Yoga Tantras that are related to the NKT tradition;
- grant ordination vows that are related to the NKT tradition; and
- use any spiritual name received from the NKT tradition, such as his or her ordination name or any special title such as ‘Gen-la’, ‘Gen’ or ‘Kadam’.«
In 2013 the New Kadampa Tradition announced and introduced a six month Special Teacher Training Programme to become a “a qualified Teacher of Kadampa Buddhism”. The requirements to attend the programme are:
»1. To have been a practitioner of Kadampa Buddhism for a number of years, but at least two
2. To have the wish to become a qualified Kadampa Buddhist Teacher
3. To be free to become a full time Kadampa Buddhist Resident Teacher after completing the course
4. To be fluent in English«
According to NKT »At the end of the course students who have successfully completed the programme will be offered a full time position as a Kadampa Buddhist Resident Teacher.« (see PDF)
From its inception until roughly 2003, all NKT centres follow strictly some of the traditionally Tibetan religious days. These include the following:
- Tsog Days
- Tara Puja Days
- Protector Puja Days
- Turning the Wheel of Dharma Day
- 8 Mahayana Precepts Days
- Buddha’s Enlightenment Day
- Buddha’s Return from Heaven Day
- Je Tsongkhapa’s Day
However all these have now been changed to the respective days in the common calendar. For example, Tsog Days were previously designated as the 10th and 25th days of each lunar month: “We should … make sure that we do not miss tsog offerings on these two days - ten days after the new moon and ten days after the full moon”. This sentence has been deleted from the 2005 reprint.
The 4th of June has been designated ‘Turning the Wheel of Dharma’ (a.k.a Dharmachakra) Day. Geshe Kelsang’s birthday coincidentally is also on the same day.
There are 2 unique NKT religious observance days not found in other Buddhist traditions:
The International Temples Day which is celebrated on the 1st of November is set up to remind its followers of the importance of building Kadampa Buddhist Temples throughout the world.
The NKT Day used to be celebrated on the 1st Sunday of April each year.
NKT does not ordain fully ordained monks or nuns (Skt.: bhikshu, bhikshuni; Tib.: gelong, gelongma) or novice monks and nuns (Skt.: sramanera, srameneri; Tib.: gestul, getsulma) as Vinaya or code of monastic discipline, the Pratimoksha. Geshe Kelsang gives his followers an ordination based on five Pratimoksha vows and five promises to keep for the rest of their life. The guiding principle of ordination in the NKT is the motivation of renunciation (Tib.: nge-jung). The five Pratimoksha vows of the NKT’s ordination are to “abandon killing, stealing, sexual conduct, lying and taking intoxicants” and the five promises (which are “in-betweens”, neither vows nor non-vows) are to “practise contentment, reduce my desire for worldly pleasures, abandon engaging in meaningless activities, maintain the commitments of refuge, and practise the three trainings of pure moral discipline, concentration and wisdom.” They are also expected to perform a Posadha-like purification ceremony twice a month (tib. sojong). A monk or nun who breaks their vows will be expelled from the center for at least a year. He or she can ask later for permission to reordain.
The first five rules of the NKT’s ordination are identical to the five Pratimoksha vows of a lay follower (Tib.: Genyen), and can be found among the eight types of Pratimoksha vows (vows of individual liberation) as lay followers’ vows. The NKT’s ordination substitutes the lay precept against sexual misconduct with the vow of celibacy (Brahmacharya). As well as receiving these vows from Geshe Kelsang, the ordaining master, the ordinee expresses the wish to not remain as a lay person but to become ordained, upon which they abandon the physical signs of a lay person by shaving their head and wearing maroon and yellow robes of the Tibetan lineage. They are given a new name which starts with “Kelsang,” since it is traditional for ordinees to receive part of the ordaining master’s name. Geshe Kelsang refers to the ordination as a Rabjung ordination. Traditionally, in Tibetan Buddhism, a Da.ma Rabjung is an “intermediate ordained one” which “refers to someone who is preparing to become a Getsul” (Novice). Da.ma Rubjungs “receive a Dharma name, shave their heads and wear robes, and act like monks and nuns but they do not yet possess the vows of an ordained person.” Such a Rabjung is not a member of the ordained Sangha but on the way to becoming one. NKT ordination ceremonies seem to include some procedures of the Rabjung ceremony such as changing one’s mind, name, and physical aspect.
The additional five promises of the NKT ordination are not listed in the Vinaya. Geshe Kelsang views them as a “practical condensation” of the 253 Vinaya vows of fully ordained monks. Geshe Kelsang encourages his followers to remain within the ordination he has given to them and focus their effort on improving their renunciation instead of receiving Getsul or full ordination. He also describes it as being easier to integrate those five vows and five promises into today’s society.
According to NKT, within the NKT community there are over 700 monks and nuns. NKT-Ordination ceremonies are usually held twice a year in the main NKT-Temple at Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Center in Cumbria (UK), Ulverston.
Practitioners approach their Buddhist teacher when they feel ready, and request formal permission once they have their teacher’s consent. They may decide to live in one of the NKT’s many Buddhist centers, but this is not a requirement. They are, in general, not financially provided for by the NKT. And, if they live in an NKT center, they still have to pay rent for their accommodation and pay for meals and the spiritual programs. To finance this, some go for housing benefit and often they have part-time work. According to Belither, “a few people are sponsored because of their NKT work but others are on ‘extended working visits’ or work locally, and some are legitimately on employment benefit.” For doing so they wear ordinary clothes if this is more convenient.
Throughout the year and in different places around the world, the NKT hosts a number of religious festivals. These feature teachings and empowerments from Geshe Kelsang Gyatso and senior NKT teachers. The longest running are the Spring and Summer Festivals at Manjushri Centre in Ulverston, England.
As of 2008 NKT claims the establishment of over 1100 centres and groups worldwide. The centres are residential communities, and the groups are branch groups that meet weekly in places such as Quaker meeting houses and community centres.
In a 1996 newspaper article, Madeleine Bunting stated:
“The method of expansion is that residential centres support branch centres, which are often no more than a group meeting in someone’s house; or a hall is rented to run the NKT courses. When the group has reached a size sufficient to sustain a centre, a property is bought. The NKT maintains that each centre is entirely autonomous and is only ‘spiritually joined’ to the NKT, although it admits that the two principal officers of each centre are NKT members. The aim is to establish a centre in every major UK town with the NKT as the biggest umbrella Buddhist organisation in the West.”
Regarding the financing of NKT centres, the NKT has different means. To finance new centres, the NKT has built up a New Centres Development Fund. Further, Bluck notes that “Fees are charged for meetings, payable at the door or by a monthly ‘Centre Card’ covering all local classes. The Manjushri Spring and Summer Festivals generate considerable income from the 2,000 or more lay and monastic guests. Like Samye Ling there are fixed charges for accommodation and courses, and a large shop and general stores sells Geshe Kelsang’s books, CDs of sadhanas and statues.” Another important part of fund raising form brochures or bulletins which advise that “accumulating merit” is vital to “become an enlightened being” and that helping the Dharma Centers “flourish” is a great way to accumulate merit.
According to Bunting, members are told that donations will “create enormous merits” in future lives and that possibly supporters are asked for giving “interest-free loans”, the fund raising includes advices how to include the NKT in your will. This has drawn criticism from former members. Bluck, Bunting, and Lopez all mention the claim that some residents financed NKT centre mortgages with their housing benefit. Lopez stated: “The benefit is paid as rent and used to service the large mortages on properties.” He mentioned former members who maintain that the Department of Social Security has unknowingly played a critical part in funding the NKT’s rapid expansion. In July 1996, after the article in the Guardian newspaper, Chris Smith, then shadow Social Security spokesman, wrote to Government urging an immediate investigation into the NKT claiming that the organisation had been exploiting a loophole in the benefits system to fund the purchase of a series of substantial properties and that the Department of Social Security had effectively been subsidizing the NKT’s expansion to the tune of hundreds of thousands of pounds.
However, Bluck states that such claims of misusing housing benefit were vigorously denied by interviewees, who explained that using housing benefit to support mortgages is wholly legitimate and that monastics often have part-time work and may wear ordinary clothes if this is more convenient. According to Bluck’s interview with Belither: “While smaller centres may struggle financially, donations were always voluntary. Manjushri’s large community and popular courses make it financially secure, a few people are sponsored because of their NKT work but others are on ‘extended working visits’ or work locally, and some are legitimately on employment benefit. However, Bluck remarks, while individual rule-bending has never been sanctioned, it may sometimes have been knowingly ignored, at least in the past”.
Another aspect of expansion is the building of Buddhist Temples, called Kadampa Temples for World Peace. The NKT has established a Kadampa Buddhist Temple in the United Kingdom, as well as in Canada, the United States, and Spain, is currently developing a Temple in Brazil and plans to build one in Germany too. The NKT stated that “The International Temples Project was established by Venerable Geshe Kelsang in the early nineties. The vision is to build a Kadampa Temple for World Peace in every major city in the world. The project is funded entirely by voluntary donations and revenue from International Buddhist Festivals.” (means NKT festivals)
World Peace Cafes have been opened at some residential centres, and in 2005 the NKT opened their first World Peace Hotel, called Hotel Kadampa, a no-smoking, alcohol-free hotel in Southern Spain. A second Hotel Kadampa has been bought in Italy. This place will be also the home of the Kadampa Meditation Centre Italy.
According to Bluck, the NKT has a “widespread if selective publicity and an overt proselytizing”. According to Kay, “NKT students in Britain who have encountered Geshe Kelsang’s ‘doctrine of good fortune’ have a responsibility to ‘help spread his precious teachings to every corner of the world’”, and he states that this is done “by establishing and teaching in centres overseas, by sponsoring and translating his books into non-English languages, or just by supporting the growth of new centres financially.” Kay explains further that “according to NKT literature, whilst Buddha Sakyamuni, Tsong Khapa and Geshe Kelsang have all ‘introduced the same Dharma into the world’, the uncommon contribution of the latter has been ‘to lay down the structures to ensure that this precious Dharma will spread throughout the world’.” The publishing activity of the organisation is regarded as another key mechanism of growth. Since one of the most common ways in which people are attracted to the NKT is through reading Geshe Kelsang’s books, it is considered imperative to publish them in every language and “get them into every book shop in the world”. Kay saw this “missionary drive” as the main explanation for why the New Kadampa Tradition has expanded so rapidly.
Waterhouse found that “casual attenders” were “encouraged in enthusiastic terms to attend further courses”, possibly representing an evangelical approach to Buddhism. This attitude has drawn the reproach that the NKT is presenting a form of “evangelical Buddhism”.
According to Kay, the NKT aims to spread worldwide, but it is sensitive to accusations of ‘empire-building’ and claims that expansion “stems from a pure motivation to help others”. Bluck found that interviewees also reflected this view: “In 1997 James Belither explained that all NKT centres ‘should have as their goal the establishing of new centres in order to help the people in that locality’ and in 2004 Belither confirmed that the movement’s aim was ‘simply to present the Buddhism of our tradition to as many people as possible who might be interested’.” According to Bluck: “Interviewees claimed the movement’s expansion was led by local demand rather than central control, as more people start groups because of their faith in Geshe Kelsang and his teachings.” As Kelsang Namgyal explained, “we would like everyone to have inner peace … so we are trying to give it to as many people as possible.”
Bell notes that the three largest Buddhist organizations in Britain–the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT), the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO), and Soka Gakkai International (SGI-UK)–utilize the same organizational style: “closely bounded, hierarchical organizations with clearly delineated institutional structures and forms of membership and an undisguised commitment to recruitment and expansion.”
David Barett has characterised the NKT-IKBU as “deriving from Tibetan Buddhism” and as “one of the newest and most controversial Buddhist movements.” Bunting stated that “The NKT is an entirely self-referential system. The total dependence on a single charismatic figure is unorthodox in Tibetan Buddhism.” Some Buddhists who are critical of the NKT and some non-Buddhists see the NKT as a cult. A former member of the NKT-IKBU has created a Yahoo! group, called New Kadampa Survivors which aims to offer help for those involved as well as for their families and relatives. Members of the group are lay persons as well as nuns and monks.
The NKT attracted international media attention and a lot of criticism for its public demonstrations “for religious freedom” in America, England, Switzerland and Germany (1996-1998) against the Dalai Lama who had advised publicly against the Shugden practice. In a 1998 report, Donald S. Lopez, Jr. remarked on the media attention, the press criticism, and the cult allegation levied at the NKT:
In the summer of 1996, the disciples of Kelsang Gyatso denounced the Dalai Lama for impinging on their religious freedom, and picketed against him during his visit to Britain, accusing him of intolerance. The demonstrations made front-page news in the British press, which collectively rose to the Dalai Lama’s defense and in various reports depicted the New Kadampa Tradition as a fanatic, empire-building, demon-worshipping cult. The demonstrations were a public relations disaster for the NKT, not only because of its treatment by the press, but also because the media provided no historical context for the controversy and portrayed Shugden as a remnant of Tibet’s primitive pre-Buddhist past.
In 1998, the NKT became a member of the British Network of Buddhist Organizations (NBO). Waterhouse notes that when the NKT joined the British Network of Buddhist Organizations, about thirty percent of the other Buddhist groups identifying themselves with the Tibetan Buddhist tradition left the NBO.
The Deutsche Buddhistische Union (DBU) refused membership for the NKT main center in Germany and its 15 branch centers in 2000. The Österreichische Buddhistische Religionsgesellschaft (ÖBR) gave a signal to the NKT that they will have no chance of becoming a member.
The NKT’s continued emphasis on the Shugden practise is another source of criticism. There are many respected Tibetan lamas who have taught the Dorje Shugden practice including Song Rinpoche, Gonsar Rinpoche and Dagom Rinpoche. The reincarnation of Trijang Rinpoche, called Trijang Chogtrul Rinpoche, still continues to practice Shugden and was even recognised by the oracle. On the other hand, there are high-levels Lamas who have warned of its dangers. According to the The Dolgyal Research Committee (Tibetan Government in Exile), prominent opponents include the 5th, 13th and current Dalai Lamas, the 5th and 8th Panchen Lamas, Dzongsar Khyentse Chokyi Lodro, the 14th and 16th Karmapas among others. Also Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche, a Dzogchen master, “has been insisting on the importance of failing to appreciate the danger inherent in such cults”.
In 1998 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso and the NKT decided to disassociate themselves from their dispute with the Dalai Lama, stating:
“… in October 1998 we decided to completely stop being involved in this Shugden issue because we realized that in reality this is a Tibetan political problem and not the problem of Buddhism in general or the NKT. We made our decision public at this time – everyone knows the NKT and myself completely stopped being involved in this Shugden issue at all levels.”
Bunting reported on different troubles that some former NKT members had with the organization. She claimed that the NKT excluded a family for questioning “the total dependence on Kelsang”, expelled one member for praising the Dalai Lama and threatened another with legal action if he published his concerns about the movement. She concluded that the movement’s response to criticism is “to exonerate the organisation and throw the blame back on the dissenting individual”. However, according to Bluck, “Again interviewees strenuously rejected such claims, which they saw as coming from disgruntled ex-disciples whose evidence is biased.” Bluck comments: “This is certainly sometimes the case, but there is also a continued unwillingness to acknowledge that the movement itself may have made mistakes.”
In 1998 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso expressed his views in an interview with Donald S. Lopez, Jr. as follows:
His reason for founding the New Kadampa Tradition:
“I wanted to encourage people to practice purely. Just having a lot of dharma knowledge, studying a lot intellectually but not practicing, is a serious problem. This was my experience in Tibet. Intellectual knowledge alone does not give peace.”
His view on Dorje Shugden and his view towards HH the 14th Dalai Lama:
“We believe that Dorje Shugden is a Buddha who is also a dharmapala. Problems have arisen because of someone’s view [the Dalai Lama’s view]. So although we say the ‘Dorje Shugden problem’, in reality this is a human problem, not a Dorje Shugden problem. This is not a fault of Buddhadharma, not a fault of Tibetan Buddhism, or even a fault of Tibetan people in general. This is a particular person’s wrong view [the Dalai Lama’s wrong view]. He can keep this view, of course, but forcing other people to follow this is not right.”
Geshe Kelsang replied to Lopez’ question: “In your opinion, the Dalai Lama is not a Gelugpa, and therefore has no right to tell Gelugpas which dharmapala they can worship?” with “That’s right.” Geshe Kelsang clarified further: “It looks as if he humiliates the Gelugpas, as if he destroys the dharma of the Gelugpas. It’s not only about Dorje Shugden. If Dorje Shugden is bad, then all those Gelugpa lamas who engaged in the practice of Dorje Shugden are impure. Then, without doubt the Gelugpa dharma is impure. He publicly destroys the Gelugpa dharma, so how can he say he is a Gelugpa lama?”
Further Geshe Kelsang denied that he can see the Dalai Lama as Avalokiteshvara, as many Tibetan masters and the Tibetans do, because the Dalai Lama is “causing the spiritual life of so many people to be destroyed.” Asked for the role of the Dalai Lama, Geshe Kelsang replied that from his point of view, the Dalai Lama “is not the spiritual leader of Gelugpas” but rather that “He is the political leader of the Tibetans.”
Geshe Kelsang’s view of the present Ganden Tripa, the head of the Gelugpas, who has also denounced the worship of Dorje Shugden:
“He has to follow the Dalai Lama’s view, otherwise there is danger. He has no choice, no power. Even my uncle, who is the medium for the dharmapala Dorje Shugden, has to follow the Dalai Lama, otherwise there is danger. They cannot remain within Tibetan society.”
About the demonstrations Geshe Kelsang said:
“Demonstrating was telling him [the Dalai Lama] that he made a mistake. Demonstrating should have been a teacher for him. Demonstrating was loving him, not disrespecting him, not harming him. But he never changed.”
About the negative press NKT was confronted with, he said:
“The New Kadampa Tradition suffered, our reputation was destroyed, and we lost many things. Yes, of course we are suffering, because people believe what the Dalai Lama says. Also many other groups and centers who practice worship of Dorje Shugden including those in Europe and America are also experiencing suffering. Many people are saying Dorje Shugden practitioners are bad, they are a cult or sectarian – they are using bad names because of what His Holiness the Dalai Lama says. In reality, we haven’t done anything wrong.”
Asked about the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Geshe Kelsang replied:
“We believe that every Nyingma and Kagyupa have their complete path. Not only Gelugpa. I believe that Nyingmapas have a complete path. Of course, Kagyupas are very special. We very much appreciate the example of Marpa and Milarepa [in the Kagyu lineage]. Milarepa showed the best example of guru devotion. Of course the Kagyupas as well as the Nyingmapas and the Sakyupas, have a complete path to enlightenment. Many Nyingmapas and Kagyupas practice very sincerely and are not just studying intellectually. I think that some Gelugpa practitioners need to follow their practical example. But we don’t need to mix our traditions. Each tradition has its own uncommon good qualities, and it is important not to lose these. We should concentrate on our own tradition and maintain the good qualities of our tradition, but we should always keep good relations with each other and never argue or criticize each other. What I would like to request is that we should improve our traditions while maintaining good relations with each other.”
Bluck offered a number of different angles from which the NKT may be viewed:
- The NKT could be viewed from outside as a movement aiming at what Titmus (1999: 91) called ‘conversion and empire-building’, with a dogmatic and superior viewpoint, ‘narrow-minded claims to historical significance’, intolerance of other traditions and ‘strong identification with the leader or a book’.
- A more scholarly external view might emphasize instead the enthusiasm, firm beliefs, urgent message and ‘charismatic leadership’ which Barker (1999: 20) saw as characteristic of many NRMs.
- An alternative picture from inside the movement would include a wish to bring inner peace to more people, based on a pure lineage of teaching and practice, with faith and confidence in an authentic spiritual guide.
About the possible ways how to picture the NKT, Bluck said: “Our choice of interpretation may depend on how we engage with the other viewpoint, as well as the evidence itself, and until recently the NKT’s supporters and critics have largely ignored each other.”
- ^ www.kadampa.org 
- ^ Official Kadampa Website, Kadampa Buddhism at 
- ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard. New Religions in Global Perspective, page 92, ISBN 0-415-25748-4, Routledge 2006
- ^ Kay page 56; The Manjushri Institute charity registration number: 271873, Trust Deed, July 1976, 1
- ^ Bluck 2006: 129
- ^ a b c d e f David N. Kay: Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation, London and New York, pages 55, 56
- ^ a b c d e f Modern Day Kadampas - published by the NKT 
- ^ Kay page 53 and 77
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Kay pages 61,62,63,64
- ^ "Eradicating wrong views" a letter, dated October 27, 1983, written as a response to the FPMT report "A report on recent events at Manjushri Institute (dated October 1, 1983)
- ^ Daniel Cozort, The Making of Western Lama in "Buddhism in the Modern World", ISBN 0-19-514698-0, page 230
- ^ a b Daniel Cozort, The Making of Western Lama in "Buddhism in the Modern World", ISBN 0-19-514698-0, page 226
- ^ a b Kay, page 63
- ^ a b c Kay page 78
- ^ Kay 2004 : 66
- ^ Kay 2004 : 56
- ^ Kay 2004 : 65
- ^ Kay page 59
- ^ a b c d Kay page 73
- ^ Kay page 68
- ^ Kay 2004 : 74
- ^ Kay 2004 : 75
- ^ Kay, page 76
- ^ a b c d Kay page 77
- ^ Kay page 67
- ^ a b c Kay page 76
- ^ The New Kadampa Tradition, charity registration number: 2758093, October 1992 designed to study and experience Geshe Kelsang's presentation of Buddhism (see page 233 of Kay's research)
- ^ Daniel Cozort, The Making of Western Lama in "Buddhism in the Modern World", ISBN 0-19-514698-0, page 234
- ^ Kay page 89
- ^ Kay page 74
- ^ a b Daniel Cozort, The Making of Western Lama in "Buddhism in the Modern World", ISBN 0-19-514698-0, page 240
- ^ NKT brochures before June 2006 and NKT-internet-sites (see ,)
- ^ Kay pages 88,89
- ^ a b Kay : 2004, p82
- ^ An Interview With Geshe Kelsang Gyatso by Donald S. Lopez, Jr.; Geshe Kelsang Gyatso discusses Dorje Shugden as a benevolent protector god, Tricycle Magazine, Spring 1998, Vol. 7 No. 3
- ^ Official Kadampa Website at 
- ^ Official Kadampa Website at 
- ^ Joyful Path of Good Fortune (p. 622)
- ^ Gyatso, Kelsang: 2002; Clear Light of Bliss, page 294
- ^ Official Kadampa Website at , 
- ^ Official Kadampa Website at , 12/02/08
- ^ Belither, 1997:7—8, see also Bluck
- ^ Kay : 2004, p83
- ^ Official NKT website,
- ^ BBC (bbc.co.uk), ; The New Kadampa Tradition (PDF)
- ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development. RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- ^ a b c d Sect disrobes British monk, World Tibet Network News, Sunday, August 18, 1996, 
- ^ Sect disrobes British monk, World Tibet Network News, Sunday, August 18, 1996, ; see also NKT magazine Full Moon
- ^ Long Life Prayer for Gen-la Thubten Gyatso, 1991
- ^ Gen-la Kelsang Khyenrab
- ^ Gen-la Kelsang Khyenrab | The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) and see also:
- ^ a b Kay page 86
- ^ Cozort page 232
- ^ Books on Buddhism and Meditation, 
- ^ Kay page 91
- ^ Special Spiritual Programs in Kadampa Buddhism, 
- ^ a b c Introduction to the Foundation Program, a transcript of a talk given by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso on the occasion of the inauguration of the Foundation Program at Tara Centre, October 1990, 
- ^ Waterhouse 1997: 151
- ^ a b Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Understanding the Mind, page 167, ISBN 81-208-1891-1
- ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Understanding the Mind, page 166, ISBN 81-208-1891-1
- ^ Kay page 93,94
- ^ Full Moon Magazine, Winter 1995, “Wisdom”
- ^ Bluck 2006 : 139
- ^ Waterhouse 1977 : 166
- ^ Kay 2004 : 94
- ^ Kay 2004 : 95
- ^ Bunting, Special Report - Shadow boxing on the path to Nirvana, The Guardian, 1998, 
- ^ Statement by Belither, James 2004 in Bluck 2006 : 139
- ^ Statement by Naymgyal 2004 in Bluck 2006 : 139
- ^ Bluck, British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development, 
- ^ Kay page 95
- ^ Prasad, 2004
- ^ Kay 2004: 85
- ^ a b c Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development. RoutledgeCurzon, page 146, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- ^Published NKT calendars 2000-3
- ^ Published NKT calendars 2004-7 and the web calendar at kadampa.org
- ^ Geshe Kelsang, Guide to Dakini Land, page 191, 1st and 2nd editions, ISBN: 0948006-40-4
- ^ Geshe Kelsang, Guide to Dakini Land, 2005 reprint, page 191, ISBN: 978-0948006-40-1
- ^ NKT calendar 2004-7
- ^ NKT yearly calendars 2000 onwards
- ^ Waterhouse 1997: 174
- ^ Bluck Robert, British Buddhism - Teachings, Practice and Development, page 144, RoutledgeCurzon Press, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- ^ Geshe Jampa Thekchok, "Monastic Rites", Wisdom Publication, 1995, page 8
The rabjung ordination does not confer actual vows. The ordainee makes promises that belong to the class of "non-revelatory form of virtuous and non-virtuous in-betweens". Therefore, becoming a rabjung is a virtuous promise but it is not a vow. The advantage is that such a odrination generates habits that bring one closer to getting and holding an actual vow—like that of a novice monk or nun (tib. getsul, getsul ma) or a fully ordained monk (tib. gelong). These promises of a rabjung have neither positively nor negatively the impact of a full vow. (For details see Abhidharma-kośa [Tib. chos mngon pa mdzod] by Vasubandhu.)
- ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso - the Ordination Handbook
- ^ a b www.kadampa.org 
- ^ Bluck interview with Namgyal, 2004, see Bluck:2006, Bunting:1996, Lopez 1998: 194
- ^ Bluck interview with Namgyal, 2004, see Bluck:2006
- ^ Bluck Interview with Belither 2004, see Bluck:2006
- ^ Bluck interview with Namgyal, 2004, see Bluck:2006, Bunting:1996
- ^ a b c Bunting, Special Report - Shadow boxing on the path to Nirvana, The Guardian, 1998, 
- ^Waterhouse, 1997: 144
- ^ Newsweek April 28 1997, see ; Ursache und Wirkung, Austria Buddhist Magazine July 2006
- ^ a b Bunting, Madeleine: The Guardian, London, 6 July 1996; Ursache und Wirkung, Austria Buddhist Magazine July 2006
- ^ Bunting, Madeleine: The Guardian, London, 6 July 1996, Lopez 1998:194, Bluck 2006
- ^ a b Lopez 1998:194
- ^ The Guardian, London: Saturday 13 July, 1996 (page 10)
- ^ Bluck interview with Namgyal, 2004
- ^ Bluck interview with Belither, James 2004
- ^ Buddhist Temples for World Peace, 
- ^ Hotel Kadampa, "A place of Dreams", 
- ^ Kadampa Meditation Center, 
- ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development. RoutledgeCurzon, page 151, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- ^ NKT magazine Full Moon No. 8 Autumn 1993
- ^ a b c d Kay page 95
- ^ NKT magazine Full Moon No. 6 Winter 1992
- ^ NKT magazine Full Moon No. 7 Spring 1993
- ^ Waterhouse (1997: 143)
- ^ Bluck, page 151
- ^ a b Bluck, Robert. British Buddhism, 2006: 149
- ^ Bluck Robert, (Jenkins, 2004)
- ^ Bluck Robert, (Kelsang Namgyal, 2004)
- ^ The New Believers: A Survey of Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions, David Barett p.310
- ^ Kay pages 38,83; The Guardian, July 6, 1996 , Newsweek, April 28, 1997 
- ^ New Kadampa Survivors, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/newkadampasurvivors
- ^ see CNN interactive, 
- ^"Two Sides of the Same God", by Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Tricycle Magazine, Spring 1998
- ^ Waterhouse 2000, Oliver Freiberger, Department for the Study of Religion University of Bayreuth, Germany , Kay page 213
- ^ a b Buddhist Magazine "Ursache und Wirkung" No. 56, 2006, Austria
- ^ von Brück, Michael (1999). Religion und Politik im Tibetischen Buddhismus, page 159. München: Kösel Verlag. ISBN 3-466-20445-3 and Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Prisoners of Shangri-La, ISBN 0-226-49310-5, University of Chicago Press, page 195
- ^ Dagom Gaden Tensung Ling - Our Purpose (Dorje Shugden statement)
- ^ Biography of Kyabje Dagom Rinpoche by Geshe Jangsem
- ^ Interview with Trijang Rinpoche by Dario Tesoroni, in 2001
- ^ A Brief History Of Opposition To Shugden by The Dolgyal Research Committee, TGIE, 
- ^"A Spirit of the XVII Secolo", Raimondo Bultrini, Dzogchen Community published in Mirror, January 2006
- ^ Open letter from Geshe Kelsang Gyatso to Wesley Pruden, Editor in Chief, The Washington Times  (PDF)
- ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso Summer Festival 2006, Dorje Shugden, 
- ^ a b Bluck 2006 : 148
- ^ An Interview With Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso discusses Dorje Shugden as a benevolent protector god. Spring 1998. Tricycle
- ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development. RoutledgeCurzon, page 150/151, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- ^ Internal Rule No 10$1, http://www.newkadampatruth.org/a-moral-discipline-guide-the-internal-rules-of-the-new-kadampa-tradition-international-kadampa-buddhist-union
- ^ A Survey of Engaged Buddhism in Britain by Sandra Bell in Christopher S. Queen, ed. Engaged Buddhism in the West. Boston: Wisdom Publishing, 2000, p. 398; Reviewed by Mavis L. Fenn (PDF)
- ^ Spring Festival 2000, Calistoga, California, Ordination talk – final draft prepared by Dekyi see: http://thedorjeshugdengroup.wordpress.com/2011/06/21/nkt-ordination-clarifying-more-misunderstandings/
- ^ Retrieved on 2011-09-23 http://kadampafestivals.org/
- ^ Retrieved on 2011-09-23 http://kadampa.org/en/buddhism/teachers/
- ^ Retrieved on 2011-09-23 http://www.modernbuddhist.ca/modern-kadampa-teachers/
- ^ Retrieved on 2012-10-10 http://www.facebook.com/pages/Kadampa-Primary-School-Derbyshire/395106683886362; for a critical discussion see: http://thedorjeshugdengroup.wordpress.com/2012/07/27/kadampa-primary-school-derbyshire-a-happiness-cult/
- Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 0-415-39515-1
- Kay, David N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation - The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT), and the Order of Buddhist Contemplatives (OBC), London and New York, ISBN 0-415-29765-6 (PDF)
- Prohl, Inken. Book Review of Kay (2004) “Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain …”
- Cozort, Daniel (2003). The Making of Western Lama in “Buddhism in the Modern World”, ISBN 0-19-514698-0
- Lopez Jr, Donald S. (1998). Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226493105
- Kay, David N. (1997) ‘The New Kadampa Tradition and the Continuity of Tibetan Buddhism in Transition‘, Journal of Contemporary Religion 12(3) (October 1997), 277-293 (PDF)
- Bunting, Madeleine (1996). Shadow boxing on the path to Nirvana, The Guardian - London, 
- Belither, James. “Modern Day Kadampas: The History and Development of the New Kadampa Tradition”. New Kadampa Tradition.
- Official kadampa.org NKT website
- Modern Day Kadampas: The History and Development of the New Kadampa Tradition
- New Kadampa Truth - NKT website to “dispel false accusations against the innocent”
- Geshe Kelsang talks about the NKT Study Programs
- BBC - Religions - Buddhism: New Kadampa Tradition
- BBC: »An Unholy Row« - British-Asian current affairs series
- “Beliefs of a Kadampa Buddhist” - NKT at BBC
- New Kadampa Tradition on About.com
- Vajrapani Buddhist Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa
- Geshe Kelsang Gyatso in his own words
- The Independent, London: Battle of the Buddhists by Andrew Brown (PDF)
- The Guardian - London: Shadow boxing on the path to Nirvana by Madeleine Bunting
- Schisms, murder, and hungry ghosts in Shangri-La by Mike Wilson
- Web site, Cult Information Centre, (CIC) London - some articles.
- Spiritual Split by Colman Jones (DOC)
- Movements In British Buddhism by Ken Jones - a founder and the present secretary of the UK Network of Engaged Buddhists
- Website with many critical articles regarding NKT [*7]
[*1] The official NKT website rephased the explanation of what NKT is by stating “It is an international association of study and meditation centers that follow the pure tradition of Mahayana Buddhism derived from the Buddhist meditators and scholars Atisha and Je Tsongkhapa and introduced into the West by the Buddhist Teacher Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso.” October 2, 2009, http://kadampa.org/en/buddhism/new-kadampa-tradition/
[*2] Mills describes NKT as a “breakaway order of the Gelukpa”. Mills, Martin (2003) Identity, Ritual and State in Tibetan Buddhism – The Foundations of Authority in Gelukpa Monasticism, p. 366, Routledge
[*4] The content of many links got lost already. It is tried to keep the link section up to date where it is possible by replacing dead links with links to websites that host the content once linked. Dead links are deactivated but left to keep the taste of the origin state of the article.
[*6] Samden Gyatso has been accused by NKT followers of maintaining sexual relationships with nuns and to encourage other monks to follow his example. Some NKT followers reported that their written complaints about Samden Gyatso's misconduct were either ignored by Kelsang Gyatso or that he in return accused them to harm the NKT, “the Buddhadharma and all sentient beings” by writing such complaints or requests to take actions to stop Samden Gyatso.
However, when the accusations against Samden Gyatso became public via internet, Kelsang Gyatso removed Samden Gyatso immediately from his position. Samden Gyatso's name and images were removed from all official NKT internet sites inbetween twenty-four hours.
Later Kelsang Gyatso acknowledged these accusations. He sent an email to Samden Gyatso which was forwarded by the NKT leadership to NKT students: »[..] You have destroyed the NKTs reputation and the power of all NKT Resident Teachers. Through your actions so many ordained Teachers have disrobed following your view which is opposite to Buddhist view - you tried to spread a sexual lineage which you yourself created. Even in society a Teacher cannot have sex with students. After you left many people confessed to me that you had had sex with them. You had sex with so many students and through your deceptive actions one nun tried to commit suicide because of your sexual behaviour towards her. Because the NKTs reputation and power of the Resident Teachers has been destroyed by your activities now the future development of the NKT will be difficult both materially and spiritually. However, I myself and all my students are working hard to recover the damage you made. We will never allow your sexual lineage to spread in this world. I have no connection with you. Geshe Kelsang Gyatso«.
[*7] Almost all articles were deleted in 2010.
This article was taken from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia (April-May 2008). Large parts of it were edited by T. Peljor.
Wikipedia and Tibet-related Issues
Some Tibetologists started to warn to use Wikipedia as a reliable source with respect to articles related to Tibet!¹
Though some Wikipedia articles are excellent, usually a lay person won't be able to discriminate between the excellent and the incorrect articles. However, the articles by Wikipedia used for this website were edited, verified and chosen very carefully.
Nowadays NKT has an own Wikipedia editor team that changes the articles according to NKT leadership’s point of view.²
¹ e.g. Prof. Dr. Dieter Schuh, Tibetinstitut, »Wikipedia und Tibet«
² for details see »Wikipedia: Dorje Shugden's Enlightened Lineage or How to Make 'History'«
For a frequently updated list of research papers see:
- Academic Research Regarding Shugden Controversy & New Kadampa Tradition by T. Peljor & C. Bell